FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 335 In this community, there would be no passive obedience, no punishments, no rewards. Everyone would work whole-heartedly for the good of all. The result would be that when the children grew up, they would be prepared for all the exigencies of individual and social life, and would carry into their new tasks the spirit of the educational State. Every child ought to belong to this com- munity, whatever his rank or social position. The new education, unlike the old, must not be confined to the so-called cultured classes. The common people, being the most considerable and the most important setion of the State, must no longer be left uneducated. Not only so, but the manual training which had hitherto been the only training given to them, ought to form part of the education of all children, to make them self-sufficient and able to contribute to the common good. Finally, the two sexes should be brought up together, and should receive the same instruction in all matters except those peculiar to their sex. The juvenile community would not be a real training ground for actual life on any other conditions. Towards the end of the Addresses, Fichte found himself compelled to raise the question of the practicability of his educational scheme. The answer he gave to those inclined to be critical was that all that was essential in it had already been put into practice by Pestalozzi. " It was the reading of his works, and constant meditation on his ideas," he said, " that suggested my own system to me. In spite of obstacles of every kind, Pestalozzi, inspired by a mighty and invincible sentiment, the love of the poor and the outcast, has succeeded in making an intellectual discovery that is destined to revolutionize the world. He has sought an education for the common people, and by the force of his genius and his love he has created a true national education that is capable of rescuing the nations and humanity as a whole from the deplorable situation into which they have now fallen."* It is doubtful whether Fichte's ideas about educational reform would have made much impression at an ordinary time. Apart from the somewhat extravagant proposal for communistic training, they contained little that was new; and what was new in them was for the most part vague. But, appearing at a time of crisis when there was a general readiness to accept any suggestion that gave promise of national solidarity, they set the statesmen of Germany * Ninth Address.